Using Browser Extensions for Beautifying Chrome Tab Page

Browser extensions are useful when you want to customize things like tables or a page. It is more about creating a distinct look according to your choice by making improvements to the default look. You can change them if you know what to do. However, before you learn the steps, you need to know why you need those.

Why Use Browser Extensions?

• You use browser extensions to integrate it with services. For example, Evernote users have extensions that will help clip websites and save to the account.

• You can add extra features in your browser, for example, if you are using JoinTabs in your browser then you can add together your Chrome tabs in a single window from multiple windows.

• You can make changes to websites and add or remove content accordingly.

Extensions are not limited to its functionality only rather there are many things to perform. It is more like a software that you can use whenever you want. You can integrate an extension with service or go for additional features. It does make a sense when you are using existing extensions for your browser.

If you want to make relevant changes to the Google tab page, then you have a choice of extensions that you can play around with using your imagination.

Using Earth View

Earth View is offered by Google Maps that do not require many changes. You can install it on the browser, so that whenever you launch a tab the first thing you will see is a satellite picture by Google Maps.

You might experience a bit of delay with the pictures to download or show up when you are using the Earth View, but it is hardly noticeable. You will still appreciate this app for its functionality.

Whatever images are available they are stored and used in Google Maps logo. The logo appears in the left-hand corner below the browser. The link to apps is located on the upper left-hand corner with details of the original location of the image.

Using Momentum

If you want productivity but want a pretty interface too, then you can try using Momentum. When you launch the extension, you will need to enter your name and your focus or the primary goal that you are working on for the day. When you define both, you will see a tab that will greet you with the current time, personal salutation along with a reminder for the day that includes your focus.

When you use Momentum, you get additional benefits like picture that is set-up as a backdrop and a list of to-do that you can expand. The list is on the right-hand corner that also gives you the current weather condition. When you use Google Maps extension, you can access the apps in your browser by clicking on the link that appears on the left-hand corner.

The best part that you get with Momentum is daily inspirational quote that appears at each tab bottom for the day.

The Pinterest Tab Extension

Pinterest Tab extension is yet another one that you can use. The primary focus of this extension is, of course, for social media with a focus on the image. You do not need an account for it to work, and this makes things simple. The extension offers background image that adds beauty to your everyday computing experience.

When you launch the extension, you can choose image topics that will include travel, fashion, sports, architecture and food. If you do not want anything out of the given options then, you can go with the Photography tag that is generic in nature.
You receive Google Calendar data that appears in the lower left corner. To access Pinterest, the link is displayed on the upper corner on the left hand.

The information related to the picture that you are currently viewing sill appear on the right-hand corner. Additionally, information about the toggle that reveals bookmarks, refresh buttons for image transition and editing picture subjects too appear on the right-hand side bar.

You get the option of ‘Pin It’ that is present within the browser for your convenience when you are using Pinterest.

In conclusion, using Extensions are a means of changing your dull, boring day into a joyous one. The ability to transform a backdrop into a beautifying experience is mood altering indeed.

The Advantages of Considering a Home Extension

Most people prefer to have extended living spaces, as their family expands. Setting about an impressive home extension plan can be an ideal alternative to enhance the utility and living space inside your existing home and accordingly raise its overall value. To explore the complete possibility of a home extension or home renovation service in your existing property, it is advisable to seek the assistance of a home improvement or a house refurbishment specialist in your local area.

Whether you wish for a larger kitchen or bathroom, an additional bedroom with en suite, an extra living space, or a mix of all of these; a house extension option can positively transform your home. Always bear in mind that only a sensible design can produce maximum benefits to your home and enhance the quality of your life within.

There are a number of recommended home extension options to suit your needs and demands. The most popular ones you could consider are:

Single storey extensions: Either done on the rear or side portion, a single storey extension can be an excellent choice to open up additional space in your home. The method is highly preferred as it is cost effective and causes minimal disruption. Different design varieties are available to match pitched tiled roof and flat roof constructions.

Double or two storey extensions / multiple storey extensions: This type of home extension is proven to bring substantial improvement to the internal space at a nominal cost. A well planned two storey rear or side extension design can provide significant ventilation and adequate room to effectively include your exact requirements.

Wrap-around extensions: A wrap-around extension is a combination of the rear and side return extension to provide the client with maximum possible space. This type can be preferred to enlarge the kitchen and create a large kitchen-diner, possibly with a living area or to add more individual rooms. The advantage of this type of extension is that it can provide maximum space and noticeably alter the profile of your existing home and offer you the utmost amount of flexibility to precisely suit your needs.

Once you have decided to invest on a home extension project, the next crucial step is to search for a suitable construction company or a builder who has the perfect combination of experience and expertise to carry out your job. Ensure the credibility of the company by analysing their project portfolio and feedback from previous customers.

Not all home extension or addition projects require planning permission. However, it is significant that you make sure with the local authorities whether your intended extension or home improvement requires planning permission. You can carry out certain types of house extensions without having to apply for permission. In certain areas and depending on your needs, planning permission may be necessary.

To sum up with, you can save a lot of money and your valuable time, and create a stylish house extension design if you depend on a trusted specialist. On the whole, a well designed home extension plan is a better way to create additional space, and is an affordable option to the high costs associated with moving to a new home.

Strategies Employed For the Extension of Patent Term-Market Exclusivity For Pharmaceutical Products

In the pharmaceutical industry, a lot of research, time, manpower and money goes into R&D for the development of novel drugs and bringing them into market. If the innovations are not protected with a proper fence of integrated technologies then generic companies would exploit the invention without giving much benefit to the innovator company. Hence, it is mandatory for the innovator company to apply for patent protection at least in those geographical areas where the innovator company wishes to market their product, retain monopoly and refrain their competitors entering into the market till the patent term for the innovation expires. This article discusses various strategies employed by the innovator companies in US to extend the life of the patent and gaining market exclusivity for the pharmaceutical product.

It is estimated that around 7 to 12 years of extensive research is involved to bring the innovation into a shape, which can be marketed. Apart from product development there are hassles regarding approval of the pharmaceutical product by respective drug authorities. Considering the patent term or the protection offered by the patent to be 20 years from the filing date of the patent, effectively a period of 8 to 10 years would be available with the innovator company to get benefits of their developed product. Innovator companies execute various strategies to extend the life of the patent as well as the product.

On grant of patent for the invented drug and regular payment of maintenance fees gives the patent holder monopoly over the drug and rights to exclude other from manufacturing, using and selling the patented invention for a stipulated time. On expiration of the patent, generic competitors would exploit the market, which would lead to reduction of market share and revenue loss for the innovator company. Hence, additional patents are filed in order to fence the invented drug or product. These additional patents for the extension of invention / product protection could comprise of method of preparation, new formulation, method of preparation of formulation, drug derivatives and its metabolites, polymorphs, stereo-selective enantiomers etc. Additional patents filed could also cover improvements to the invention or new uses, which are not mentioned in the initial granted patent.

We will discuss in brief various strategies employed by the innovator companies in US to extend the life of the patent and reap maximum fruits for an extended period of time.

The Hatch-Waxman Act provides a system wherein the New Drug Applicant (NDA) holder could apply to have extension of its patent. The extension was meant to compensate the applicant for a portion of any time lost after the issuance of a patent during which the testing and approval phases of the FDA’s regulatory review process commenced.

Following are the paths by which patent term can be extended:

1) Patent term adjustments – delay during patent prosecution

The patent term adjustment is provided in case of United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) fails to act to patent application from patent filing or fail to reply to applicant’s appeal in a stipulated time.
The purpose of the patent term adjustment provision was to guarantee that patent applicants would still have a patent term of at least seventeen years from grant under the twenty-year patent term system.

2) Patent extensions – delays due to regulatory approval

USPTO can restore the term of a patent that is lost due to delays during regulatory approval by Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Patents relating to drug products, medical devices, food additives, and color additives are eligible for patent extension. The maximum of patent term that may be restored is five years.

3) Interim term extensions

If the term of the patent expires before the certificate of extension is given to the application, then the Director extends the term of the patent up to one year under Interim term extension. This extension is only possible if the director feels that the patent should be considered for extension.

Apart from patent term extensions, market exclusivities can be gained separately. Exclusivity gives FDA approved drugs market exclusivity which does not allow the generic competitors to enter into the market till the exclusivity is valid.

Following are the market exclusivities offered by FDA:

1) New Chemical Entity (NCE) exclusivity

NCE exclusivity is awarded for 5 years to NDA applicant who receives the first approval for a drug product. No salt or ester of the novel chemical entity should have ever received FDA approval. During this 5-year period, the FDA is stopped from accepting an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for review. The only exception is that if a patent is also listed on the NDA product subject to NCE exclusivity, the FDA may accept an ANDA after 4 of the 5-year period has expired, if the ANDA contains a Paragraph IV certification challenging the patent. NCE exclusivity can be considered as a total exclusivity as generic competitors cannot submit or approve their product while the exclusivity is valid.

2) New Use / New Clinical Studies exclusivity

This kind of exclusivity is granted for a period of three years to NDA holder who applies for new use of approved drug. New clinical studies are to be carried out to get approval from FDA for use of the approved drug for its use for new indication. Exclusivity can be granted for new dosage form (Sustained release dosage form, Controlled release dosage form), a new use or indication, a new salt or ester of a drug product, change in concentration, novel drug delivery etc. The 3-year exclusivity may block FDA approval of a generic version until after the exclusivity expires. It is also possible that the FDA approves generic version if approval does not infringe on the protected change.

3) Orphan Drug exclusivity

Seven-year orphan drug exclusivity is granted to promote research and marketing for the development of drugs to treat rare diseases. US FDA had defined Orphan drug / rare diseases as those diseases affecting 200,000 or fewer patients in the US. This exclusivity period can block the FDA from approving competing generics of a drug product for the orphan use. Applicant may request orphan drug designation for a previously unapproved drug or for an already marketed drug. One or more applicants may receive orphan drug status for the same drug for the same orphan disease.

4) Pediatric exclusivity

Pediatric exclusivity gives an incremental 6 months exclusivity to an existing marketing exclusivity that has been earlier granted or to a patent protection. This type of exclusivity is granted to clinical studies of drugs for pediatric population. This type of exclusivity ensures an incentive for an NDA applicant for the clinical studies carried out specifically for pediatric patients. Products with no patent life or exclusivity remaining cannot qualify for pediatric exclusivity.

Hence, it is seen that various methods are adopted by the innovator companies to extend the term of their patent to extend their monopoly in the filed of pharmaceuticals.